Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is the injection of a single sperm directly into the cytoplasm of an ooccyte using an injection pipette. ICSI has been developed as an essential assisted reproductive technology in mice. The advantage of ICSI is that it does not need the sperm to be motile or alive.
The integrity of sperm DNA and some sperm factors are required for egg activation and normal embryo development. Abnormal spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis and sperm maturation, and inappropriate sperm preparation and freezing can cause sperm factor defects and DNA damage, which may affect ICSI outcome.
ICSI can be an option when:
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Li MW, Kinchen KL, Vallelunga JM, Young DL, Wright KD, Gorano LN, Wasson K, Lloyd KC 2013 Safety, efficacy and efficiency of laser-assisted IVF in subfertile mutant mouse strains. Reproduction 145: 245-254.
Li MW, Lloyd KCK 2006 Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in the mouse. In “Principles and Practice: Mammalian and Avian Transgenesis – New Approaches”, Shirley Pease and Carlos Lois (Eds), Springer–Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, p23-40.
Li MW, KCK Lloyd et al. IVF recovery of mutant mouse strains using sperm cryopreserved with MTG in cryovials. CyroLetters 35(2): 145-53.